Learning Health and Physical Education Through Inquiry

>>Welcome everyone and thank you
for joining Ophea today for our inquiry based learning webinar. Today we will be sharing the inquiry
based learning process and how it can be applied in health and
physical education both at an elementary and secondary level, as
well as support resources available from Ophea. Our presenter today is
Heather Gardner. Heather is a health and
physical educator with the Hamilton Wentworth District School Board and
a curriculum consultant with Ophea. Heather has developed over 40
resources for H&PE, and was involved in the development of Ophea’s Human
Development and Sexual Health lesson plans. In addition, Heather has provided
hundreds of professional learning opportunities for educators
across Canada. Thank you for being here today,
Heather.>>Thanks Kristin, so we’ll get
started. Here are the learning goals for our
time together this afternoon. I’ll give you a few minutes to read
the learning goals that we’ve identified. As you can see, we’ll be exploring
inquiry based learning process and the approaches and approach as well
as practical examples of how this can be applied in Health and
Physical Education from grades 1 to 12. We’ll also review Ophea’s
resources available to support this learning and approach. So, to start us off, I would like to
provide a quick overview of Ophea for those who may be unfamiliar with
the organization or the services it offers. Ophea is proud to be a provincial
subject association for Health and Physical Education and a leader in
developing quality H&PE curriculum implementation supports
for educators, public health professionals,
and community program leaders. Ophea’s extensive network across
Ontario includes: Teachers; Educational Assistants; Community
Coaches; Recreational Program Leaders;
Program Assistants and Parents. HPE is an essential aspect of
student achievement and overall healthy development of
children and youth and Ophea provides a variety of resources
to support educators. As we’ll discuss later in the
webinar, Ophea’s Inquiry-Based Learning in HPE resource
guide has just launched So, before we get too far into the inquiry based learning process, lets
take take a step back to truly understand what inquiry
based learning is. Jurisdictions from across the
country and around the world are doing work in the area of
Inquiry-Based Learning. You might hear it called different
names such as problem-based learning. The definition on the screen is one
you’ll find in Ophea’s new guide for inquiry-based learning. Alberta Learning defines
inquiry-based learning as a process where students are involved in their
learning, formulating questions, investigate widely and then build
new understandings, meanings and knowledge. That knowledge is new to the
students and may be used to answer a question, to develop a solution or
to support a position or point of view. The knowledge is usually presented
to others and may result in some sort of action. Please take a moment to read a few key concepts central to the inquiry
based learning approach in HPE. One key idea here is that inquiry
based learning isn’t linear. As educators and learners, you may
be going back and forth between components of the process. For example, after gathering
information students may go back and change or refine their original
question. Also they will learn to reflect not
only at the end but throughout the process. Students engaged in inquiry-based
learning develop 21st century, higher-order thinking skills
including analysing, synthesizing, evaluating, and reflecting, and they
become more independent and interested as they take
responsibility for their own learning. As students pose their own questions
their curiosity is piqued and as a result they are more engaged in the
learning process. Throughout the inquiry process
students also learn and practise collaboration and
communication skills. Adapted from the Ontario Social
Studies, History, Geography curriculum for grades 1-8, and the
Canadian and World Studies curriculum for grades 9-12, a model
we are presenting for using Inquiry in Health and Physical Education
consists of six components. It can be applied to student
learning across the HPE curriculum with
both Health and PE. Inquiry as a process for student
learning can be considered in three stages: launching, facilitating, and
making sense of inquiry, with the components of an inquiry process
included throughout each stage. As part of launching their inquiry,
students formulate questions to explore and investigate their topic.
Here students will consider their topic or question. Educators facilitate the student’s
learning during the gather and organize component, as students
interpret and analyse what they’ve collected within the inquiry. Once students have collected
appropriate information and evidence related to their question or
questions they can move forward to making sense of their evidence—they
evaluate and draw conclusions; communicate what they have learned;
and reflect on what, why, and how they have learned. Reflection is a part of all stages
and components of the inquiry process, helping to
deepen the learning. While the stages are progressive,
educators can enter the process at any stage and with any component so
students can begin learning and practicing using inquiry skills. In Health and Physical Education,
students have the opportunity to develop inquiry skills in the all
strands of the curriculum including Living Skills expectations. For example, the 2015 Health and
Physical Education Curriculum requires that “critical thinking
skills such as questioning, predicting, analysing, synthesizing,
examining opinions, identifying values and issues, detecting bias,
and distinguishing between alternatives” be integrated with
learning in Active Living, Movement Competence
and Healthy Living. These critical-thinking skills are
the same skills needed and used in inquiry-based learning. In Health and Physical Education,
students can use an inquiry-based learning approach when exploring
different ways to send an object, analysing and evaluating which game
strategy is most effective to regain possession of the ball, or
communicating a decision they will make about healthy eating. So what’s your starting point?
Consider your amount of experience and level of confidence with both
HPE instruction and with inquiry. So what we’ll do now is have you
respond in the poll and just let us know what is your starting point
when we connect inquiry with Health and Physical Education. Alright, so you’re simply selecting
one of the bullet points there. For anyone new who might have
joined, if you could put your phone on mute by pressing *4. Alright, so we can see everyones
starting place and so we have some folks who are less experienced with
Health and PE inquiry, some folks who are confident with PE but less
experienced with inquiry. So, as we make through our time
together this afternoon we will come back to a slide similar to this to
check and see how we’ve moved our way along. So, as we’ve already highlighted,
the Inquiry Based Learning process is recursive, with educators
entering and exiting the model at any of the six components. Throughout our webinar today, we’ll
examine the launch of inquiry through the perspective of two
sample educators. The first scenario, on the left hand
side, is an elementary educator, who has a high level of experience in
HPE and a high level of experience of Inquiry. The second, our secondary educator
is high in their experience of HPE, and low in their
experience with Inquiry. So, what might the two starting
points be for these two educators, let’s take a moment to reflect and
respond in the chat. Where would you start if you were
one of these two educators? So what do you think, let us know in
the chat where might these educators start with relation to
inquiry based learning. Alright, so we’ve got multiple
attendees typing, which is great, so we’ll take a few moments here to
see what people think. So, where would you start if you
were teacher one, high experience in HPE and a high experience in inquiry
or if you were teacher two – a high experience in HPE but low
experience in inquiry. So, you keep typing away and lets
take a look at our responses here. So, elementary, based on their
personal experience through our scenarios, this specific teacher has
decided to move through an inquiry from start to finish.
So in relation to the graphic previously with the columns
available from Ophea’s inquiry based learning resource, they’ve decided
to make through an inquiry from start to finish. Now our secondary educator who was
new to inquiry based learning, based on their previous experiences,
they’ve decided to look for a starting point to integrate little
pieces of inquiry into what they’re already doing in physical education. So in the upcoming set of slides,
we’ll be illustrating a model for inquiries that can be used for
instruction in HPE. All of the information and sample
graphic organizers are taken from Ophea’s new guide to inquiry based
learning and can be accessed on the Ophea website. So, we do have some examples here.
Perfect. So, our guest signed in as guest has
identified exactly the scenario we’ll be taking a look at, which is
little pieces at one at a time and the idea of the elementary going for
a longer period of time. And I see Dave Inglis is suggesting
that again teacher two looks at a strategy that supports them in PE
and Health and make their way through the process as they
feel comfortable. Wonderful.
So it sounds like we are right on track. As we’ve heard, launching an inquiry
can begin at any stage. As teachers you can explore this
approach to instruction as deeply as you feel comfortable with.
We’ll now take a look, at launching an inquiry in H&PE and see what our
sample educators might do at every stage. When getting ready to launch an
inquiry there is no right, and no wrong. You can explore this approach as
deeply as you feel comfortable with. Inquiry is an approach to learning;
educators may focus on the whole process or one or two of the
components of inquiry. The educator decides the starting
point and how much autonomy students are ready for, with respect to each
component of the inquiry, as well ways to use
inquiry with students Educators can approach inquiry from
multiple entry points as illustrated on the slide. They may use a structured
inquiry-based approach in which the educator guides students to practise
just one component of the process (e.g., the educator chooses the
question, the resources or the way to communicate findings
with the student. They may use a guided inquiry
approach in which the students have choice and more involvement in more
than one component of the inquiry process at a time. Or finally, for maximum student
autonomy, educators may use a full inquiry approach in which students
participate in each component of the inquiry process with the educator
providing feedback as students proceed through the components. As always, a differentiated approach
is needed to support student learning. For example, to engage a student who
demonstrates strong reading abilities, the educator may have
that student choose their own websites to research. For students who struggle with organizing their thoughts, the
educator can provide graphic organizers for them to use when
gathering their evidence. We’ll start off my examining
formulating questions. Here students formulate questions or
make predictions about concepts, strategies, and/or the relationships
between topics or skills, and plan investigations to answer the
questions as they take an active role in their learning. For students to develop the skills
for asking or formulating questions, it is helpful for educators to model
effective questioning techniques as part of their teaching practice
on a regular basis. Think about what types of questions
you ask during PE and Health units. What types of questions would you
ask in HPE? Let’s have you respond to this question in the chat.
So, thinking about the questions that you ask, what types of
questions do you use? Please respond in the chat. So, I see a few folks typing. Thinking about health education. Maybe you’re generating questions
that help students make connections across different health topics;
questions that might reinforce key learning; questions that reflect
the living skills. Let’s see some examples. So, your example is up there. In PE it’s more questions about how
to improve a skill, in Health about decision making. Definitely connections to movement
confidence and to the living skills. Dave is sharing questions that are
open ended, student friendly language which is great
and requires at looking from different perspectives. For PE we might also see questions
related to reflecting on the living skills, questions that prompt their
thinking about what they’re learning and why, questions that help them
make connections between the overall expectations. So you continue to chat and lets
take a look at some questions from the inquiry guide of Ophea. Inquiry questions in HPE may take a
number of approaches which can be used with instruction in all parts
of health and physical education. The following are criteria for an
effective inquiry question: They’re open-ended, they’re thought-provoking
and intellectually engaging, they call for higher
order thinking, they point toward important,
transferrable ideas, they raise additional questions or
spark further inquiry, they require support
and justification, not just the answer, and they recur over time—that is,
these are questions that can and should be revisited again and again. This chart that you see on the
screen is available from page 31 of Ophea’s inquiry based
learning guide. Let’s connect back to our two
sample educators. Our secondary teacher who is
experienced with the HPE and wants to begin to integrate an
inquiry-based approach with their PE program might start with Questioning
and while teaching a unit on invasion games focusing on offensive
game strategy and might use a tool like this one – See, Think,
Wonder. Students could respond to a video of
an offensive game play in Lacrosse, identifying what they see, what they
think, and what they are wondering about? Our elementary teacher who is
experienced with inquiry might use the same tool, but in the health
class create a variety of stations containing popular snack food labels
which students will observe and make note of, before delving into
learning about healthy choices for snacks using Canada’s Food
Guide as a reference. This activity will help students to
formulate questions as they begin their inquiry about healthy eating. So, Once students have an inquiry
question, they begin to gather and record evidence to ultimately answer
the question using a variety of credible sources. Sources of information used to
answer inquiry questions will vary depending upon the context
of the inquiry. For example, finding information
about healthy eating or sexual health may involve using sources
such as books, databases, and health nurses. Finding information about fitness
levels, movement skill, concepts, and game strategies may require
using data collection tools such as fitness assessments and
various game experiences. To ensure students are using
critical-thinking skills and are not simply giving personal opinions,
students need to collect current, relevant information and evidence
from different perspectives from which they later draw
their conclusions. So lets have you think for a moment,
what is one word that best describes what this phase, the Gather and
Organize phase of inquiry, could look like in both Health and
Physical Education. And we’ll have you write that one
word in the comments section and as always please feel free to respond
to other participants words and comments. Ohh, portfolio, great one.
A great tool to help students gather and organize. Maybe a word like find, investigate, explore, discover, research,
arrange, categorize, label, record, results. Here are some of those words. So all of these components are part
of learning to gather and organize information. It involves skills that needs to be
taught intentionally in order to help students learn. In HPE students gather and organize
their thoughts and understandings in a variety of ways. Educators might support these unique
ways of student learning by utilizing these considerations and
tips identified right now on the slide. Educators should keep in mind that
explicit teaching will be needed to help students learn how to use these
different tools when gathering and organizing their thoughts. Let’s connect back to our two
sample educators. Our secondary teacher again
experienced in PE looking for other ways to start to
integrate inquiry approaches into their PE program
might start with this graphic organizer as an exit card, and while
teaching a net/wall unit focusing on what movement principles are applied
when serving a ball over a net looking at how they can use more
power, this exit card might be applicable. Our elementary teacher who has some
experience with inquiry might use the same tool, but in the health
class where the entire class works together as a large group to connect
learning back to the lesson learning goals of staying safe while
on the school bus. So, we’ll move to our next cog in
our inquiry process. Once students have collected
information or evidence, they need to examine it for patterns and how
the information connects to previous knowledge, relates to practice, and
answers their inquiry question. Students also need to decide whether
they have collected sufficient quality information to help them
make a decision, create a solution, complete a task, or set a goal. To assess the quality of their information, students also need to
review their sources of information with respect to bias, currency,
point of view, and accuracy. To support students in learning how
to Interpret and Analyse information, educators may model the
use of visuals, use guiding questions such as, “Are there other
perspectives you may not have considered?” There are also a number of templates
in Ophea’s guide to Inquiry-based learning that could be used to help
students learn to determine whether they’re sources are
credible and reliable. So, with regards to the Interpret
and Analyze stage, we’ll take a look back to our secondary teacher
looking to integrate inquiry into their PE program, they may use a
graphic organizer for students to use as a self check for their
sources throughout their learning. With this tool students will reflect
on the currency of the source, its reliability, they’ll examine
which perspectives are viewed, the relevance of the source, and
if it is information that helps to actually answer their
inquiry question. In the classroom this might be used
as an introductory activity where students evaluate the currency and
reliability of two outside sources. For example, wikipedia vs a public
health unit website. Here is another example of a graphic
organizer that is in Ophea’s guide for inquiry-based learning. Our elementary teacher who has some
experience with inquiry might use a similar tool in their health class
where students will have a conference with a peer and use the
tool as a guide to assess their sources and share some next steps. After students have analysed their
sources of information, they next amalgamate their information and
draw conclusions based on sound judgment about the evidence. To synthesize all their collected
information, students combine and arrange data, eliminate information
that isn’t important, highlight new understandings. Students look at what the evidence
tells them, determine the implications of the information, and
make a logical, well-supported conclusion. This may include what impact it has
on them, others, or the world around them. So how do our students or your
students draw conclusions in HPE. Can you give us some examples by
responding in the comments. So what does Draw Conclusions look
like in your Health Program or your PE program. Bear with us in the chat. Alright, so we see an example of
making a decision about what game strategy to use, a great one for PE. Evaluating what they eat and
comparing it to Canada’s Food Guide, presenting an idea followed by a
decision about what strategy they find works best for them. So you continue to chat and respond
to each other and we’ll continue to look at evaluating and
drawing conclusions. So students use the information that
they have gathered to take some action. For example, they may make a
decision about what would be an effective offensive or defensive
strategy in a certain game situation, or consider how the use
of movement skills or game strategies impact successful
participation in gameplay. They could reflect on their
achievement of their fitness goals and consider what impacted their
results and what their next steps are or they could articulate what
should be considered when making a plan to take care of their sexual
health and well-being. So connecting back to our
sample educators. Our secondary teacher
experienced in PE and wanting to start to use
inquiry-base approaches in their PE program might use this PMI
graphic organizer while focusing on the influence of physical
activity on mental health. Students can work in small groups as
they explain the impacts of physical activity on mental health. Our elementary teacher, who has some
experience with inquiry, might use the same tool, also in a health class
as per their inquiry teaching goal, where individual students highlight
the importance of standing up for themselves. And our next cog, in the Communicate
component of the inquiry process, students “go public” with their
learning and share their new understandings with others. Students can communicate their
conclusions in various ways including oral, written, graphic,
and/or multimedia forms. So, what are the different ways you
have your students communicate information to you, their peers,
or an audience? Can you share your response in the
chat and of course respond to other participants. Lots of attendees are typing. Tweets and blogs. So using social media
as a way to communicate, with their bodies, movement
sequences, and dance. In HPE students do have a unique
opportunity to communicate in a variety of ways such as
using their body. Orally, presenting, role playing,
written forms, reports; really great ideas we’re seeing. And of course, the upfront section
of the curriculum is a great place to check out. There’s a paragraph in there that
talks about physical communication skills. Talks about using their
bodies to show what they know, reading body language in both a
physical education and health education context. And of course, communication skills
is a key component of the living skills with lots of opportunities to
explicitly teach these skills across the curriculum. We’ve got a few more ideas in the
chat so keep those ideas coming while we move on to explore this
section a little deeper. So, learning vocabulary is key to
success for students to communicate what they have learned. Students need to learn to use both
vocabulary that is specific to Health and Physical Education and
vocabulary that they may be familiar with and will be using with
inquiry-based learning across the curriculum. Opportunities for students to
practise and develop their communication skills can occur in
various ways throughout the various components of the inquiry process,
not only during the communication stage. For example, students can: work in a
group to brainstorm questions, can turn and talk to an elbow
partner about a credible source, can participate in a
knowledge-building circle telling the class what they’ve
discovered about using strategies during a game. If we connect back to our two
sample educators. Throughout the inquiry process both
elementary and secondary students would benefit from the use
of a word wall. As new words are explored they can
be added to the wall. Students can create their own
definitions or search out definitions from a
variety of sources. Inquiry specific words are displayed
here, however, HPE content specific words from the topic of instruction
would be a great addition to this wall. Reflection is a core component of
inquiry-based learning and is an important piece with all
parts of the process. Students develop the ability to
think critically about their own thought processes through
reflection. Reflection involves students
developing the ability to articulate their thinking about what they have
learned and also about themselves as inquirers. As a starting point, students might
consider “How they learn and what helps them learn best”. At the end of a chunk
of learning, students might consider “How what they
learned can be transferred to new learning” or “What they might do
differently next time”. What tools have you used to support
student reflection in your Health and/or Phys Ed program. Share your ideas right now, in the
chat. We’ve got multiple attendees typing
which is great, so lets see what some of those reflection tools are: Self assessment, journals, exit
cards, reflections, the more personal journals, we have portfolio listed
for a previous comment, I bet that would work here. Assignments prompting students to
collect info from family members or other adults on reflecting on
what they’ve heard. Alright, so conferencing
outside of the classroom. Students will learn to reflect on
and evaluate their experience in the process, thinking about what went
well, what could have been done differently, and what
should have been done. A few samples of what students could
reflect on are located on the slide, we’ll take a moment here to
allow you to read through the examples and think about how you
have students reflect in your program or how you
might in the future. For our final time, let’s connect
back to our two sample educators. Throughout the inquiry process both
elementary and secondary students would benefit from using this
reflection exit card either individually or in small groups. Students consider what they have
learned, how the process worked, or needed improvement, and
where to go next. Connections to the Living Skills
expectations from HPE can be clearly seen here with Personal Skills as
students use self awareness as well as adaptive, management
and coping skills. They may also be using Interpersonal
Skills if working in small groups and as they reflect on
collaborating with others. The content of their inquiry will be
directly related to learning in movement competence, active living,
or healthy living. Throughout the webinar we have seen
tools available for both elementary and secondary teachers from Ophea. Let’s take a closer look. Ophea’s Inquiry-Based Learning in
Health and Physical Education guide has been developed to support
educators with the implementation of the 2015 Health and Physical
Education Curriculum, Grades 1–8 and 9–12. It is intended to support
educators in developing their understanding of inquiry-based
learning, its application in the Health and Physical Education
Curriculum, and the benefits it provides to students. This guide which you can download
from ophea.net/teachingtools is divided into four sections to
support educators in exploring inquiry in health and
physical education. Section One provides an overview of
inquiry-based learning as it applies to HPE. Section Two provides an overview of
assessment in inquiry-based learning and related implementation tools. Section Three demonstrates how
educators may apply an inquiry-based learning approach in HPE , with
guidelines for educators to use as they consider different components
of the Inquiry Framework. Section Four provides sample inquiry
plans for both elementary and secondary HPE, including related
implementation tools. The IBL guide not only includes
tools to support the process but also big picture planning. Here we see some tips for keeping an Inquiry journal to collect
students’ learning. A variety of other organizers also
exist to support students in moving through the process in a way
that works for them. So, where are you now?
And where will you go from here? Let’s take a look back at our scale
from the start of the webinar. Where do you see yourself now? So, we’ll wait a few moment for
everyone to answer. Of course, the top one being less
experience with HPE and less experience with Inquiry, and gaining
more experience as we move down the poll. What we’ll do now is move
into a few questions. So if you have any questions, we
will use the chat option. As you can see, the link to the
resource has been provided there in the chat, so if you right click on
that link you’ll be able to open up the resource which is available. And if you have any questions you’ll
see those questions in the chat. While some of those questions are
being typed up I will provide our contact information so if you do
have any questions after the webinar please feel free to connect with us
also following Ophea on twitter and Facebook connecting on social media. And in a few moments we’ll have the
evaluation shared through the link, so we would appreciate any comments
that you might have regarding the webinar and we’ll see what sort of
questions might arise. So, we’ll stick around for
questions, if you do. Take a moment to complete the
evaluation tool that would be great. And hopefully we will see you in
Niagara Falls for our conference in the fall. Great, thanks Sharon.
Thanks for that feedback and sharing your perspective from Public Health.

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