Types of Diabetes – Internal Medicine / Endocrinology | Lecturio

[Music] in these lectures we’re going to talk about diabetes mellitus diabetes mellitus can be defined as a chronic metabolic disease characterized by elevated plasma glucose this is usually due to insulin deficiency in the case of type one diabetes type one diabetes can be immune mediated due to beta cell destruction or idiopathic which is non immune mediated this particular type is very rare acquired diabetes is diffuse damage of the beta cells with subsequent insulin deficiency and this can occur from infections or drugs that affect the pancreas impaired action of insulin secondary to insulin resistance is the hallmark of tannic 2 diabetes probably the most common form of diabetes that we encounter in medical practice one can also get the combination of these two abnormalities pre-diabetes is defined as elevated kazmo glucose levels below the diagnostic criteria for diabetes but above the normal range gestational diabetes or pregnant but pregnancy induced diabetes is any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy the definition applies where the insulin or only diet modification is used for treatment and whether or not the condition persists after pregnancy elevated plasma glucose can be defined as a plasma glucose level that occurs between the range of 100 and 125 milligrams per deciliter also on a glucose tolerance test a range of plasma glucose between 140 and 199 milligrams per deciliter this is usually two hours after a 75 gram oral glucose load and then finally a glycosylated hemoglobin level or hemoglobin a1c of 5.7 26.4% criteria for diagnosing diabetes are numerous and this but this particular series of slides will take you through differentiating the normal range pre-diabetes and over diabetes mellitus a random plasma glucose in the setting of classic hypoglycemic symptoms such as polyuria polydipsia polyphagia plus a plasma glucose level that exceeds or is equal to 200 milligrams per deciliter will give you the diagnosis of diabetes fasting plasma glucose after an eight hour fast within the normal range should be less than 100 milligram per deciliter pre-diabetes is defined as a fasting plasma glucose between 100 and 125 milligrams per deciliter and avert diabetes occurs when the fasting plasma glucose is greater than or equal to 126 milligrams per deciliter plasma glucose during a 2 hour 75 gram oral glucose tolerance test under normal circumstances should be less than 140 milligrams per deciliter in pre-diabetes this will range between 140 and 199 and in overt diabetes greater than 200 milligrams per deciliter hemoglobin a1c of less than 5.7 is normal between 5 point 7 and 6 point 4 indicates pre-diabetes and overt diabetes is diagnosed when the hemoglobin a1c exceeds 6.5 percent I referred earlier in the slide to classic hypoglycemic symptoms there is a generally accepted triad although they don’t necessarily always occur in patients with diabetes but more often than not excessive urination or polyuria excessive hunger polyphagia and excessive thirst or polydipsia are hallmarks of elevated serum glucose in the absence of hypoglycemic symptoms and abnormal fasting plasma glucose an abnormal oral glucose tolerance test test or hemoglobin a1c should be confirmed by repeated testing let’s say a few words about the metabolic syndrome this is a group of risk factors that increase the probability of developing tight diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease this in turn can result in impaired glucose metabolism central body obesity hypertension and hyperlipidemia there’s also an increased relative risk of developing cardiovascular disease and an increased risk of developing diabetes in fact the risk for cardiovascular disease is two times normal and the risk for developing of the diabetes is five times normal [Music]

2 thoughts on “Types of Diabetes – Internal Medicine / Endocrinology | Lecturio

  1. You have a nice chart, but while your columns are right (close enough), you have totally missed a major row (or two).

    Let me focus on one row: insulin. Unless you document at least fasting insulin, you've missed a BIG piece of truly understanding DM.

  2. Tanks for this video .. I really enjoyed it! I do.follow ur videos .i have been wondering if diabetes wud have a relationship with Gout! … pls check the video and like back

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *